Friday, May 22, 2020

Should Children Of Alcoholic Parents Be Placed Foster...

Should children of alcoholic parents be placed in foster care? Alcoholism is a disease caused by an excessive consumption of alcoholic substances. Alcoholism causes many psychological and behavioral problems which include disruption of social and work life, hand tremors, blackouts, obsessive desire to drink, inclination towards violence, among other problems. Alcoholism might cause violent reaction towards other people, usually the people who suffer of these violent reactions are the ones that are the closest to the alcoholic, their family. The children of these people are the ones that suffer the most because they have to live with their parents and cannot walk away as any adult could do. This leads to the question, â€Å"Should children of alcoholic parents be taken away by child protective services and be placed in foster care? If yes, what are the consequences of putting children in foster homes?† Most people would say yes, but not many people think if the children actually do better in foster care in comparison to staying with their parents or any of the problems that may arise after placing the children in foster care. The first question that needs to be answered is that if the alcoholism is as bad as it sounds and if these problems caused by alcoholism have an effect on the children of alcoholics. The easy answer is yes, it has a negative effect on the children, but not many people can talk about what negative effects growing with alcoholic parents may cause. The problemsShow MoreRelatedChild Abuse By David Pelzer1021 Words   |  5 Pageshighly recommend as a must read. The book starts off with a happy home and quickly turns into his very own nightmare. Pelzer is a survivor of child abuse. This story is so nauseating that while reading it you find found yourself praying that his parents would rot in hell for all eternity. It starts off in 1973 having his head smashed into the kitchen counter for minor offenses, then rapidly leads into much worse. He writes how his mother was physically and emotionally abusive toward him from theRead MoreGay Adoption Essay803 Words   |  4 PagesGay parents are facing discrimination because of their sexual orientation. Twenty-two states currently allow single gays to adopt and 21 states currently allow gay and lesbian couples to adopt in the U.S. (Mallon, 2007, p. 6). The ability of gay couples to rear a child should not be denied only because they are gay. Homosexuals may be looked down upon by society, but they still are humans and have morals. These morals they possess, may influence a child more than those morals taught to a child withRead MoreThe Adoption Of The United States1310 Words   |  6 PagesBefore the 1970’s adoption between race was not popular. Then suddenly there was a shortage of Caucasian babies and parents trying to adopt had to look els ewhere. Many factors took place for the shortage to happen including the legalization of abortion in 1973, the increased use of contraceptives, and the changing social attitudes that led more unmarried white women to keep their children rather than give them up for adoption (â€Å"Adoption†). In 1994 Congress passed the Multiethnic Placement Act (MEPA)Read MoreThe Jack Roller A Delinquent Boy s Own Story Essay1569 Words   |  7 Pagesyears old when his mother passed away, leaving his father to take care of three children. Soon after the death of his mother, his father becomes an alcoholic and remarries a woman who has seven children of her own. This leads to twelve people sharing four rooms in a basement apartment. Stanley’s father did the best he could to provide a roof over his family’s head and food for them to eat, but he did not provide any love for his children, which in his eyes was all he needed to do. In addition, he wasRead MoreThe Foster Care System Within The United States1860 Words   |  8 PagesToday, in America, a child enters foster care every two minutes (â€Å"Statistics on Foster Care†). Thousands of children enter and exit the foster care system each year with some being adopted, some returning to their homes, and others being emancipated and set to be on their own (Statistics on Foster Care†). The foster care system was first put in place to take children out of overcrowded and underfunded orphanages. It was later transformed to help children from abusive, deceased or negligent familiesRead MoreScenario on Social Learning Theory Essay1304 Words   |  6 Pagesthat have children. It is important to protect our children and we know how bad these offences can harm our youth today which is our future of tomorrow. Lynchburg Department of Job and Family Services decided to sit down and brainstorm; to come up with some kind of idea to protect the children in these families from any pain, harm, or damage that might come their way from the adult behavior. After carefully doing creativity thinking, we came up with a policy to help prevent the young children from theRead MoreFoster Care: the Bad the Good and the Solution3729 Words   |  15 PagesTreschl English 1410 6 May 2011 Foster Care: The Bad the Good and the Solution The father is an alcoholic, the mother is perfectly fine and the child shows no signs of abuse, neglect or foul treatment; however Dad came to school intoxicated one day, now as a social worker you have to get involved and decide what to do. RRRemoving the child from the home has to be the best idea right? The home is unsafe and the child is in danger t the best idea must be foster care. However did you consider theRead MoreMy Point Today Is Poor Parental Guidance859 Words   |  4 Pagesever witnessed children interacting, perhaps a demonstration of antisocial and rude behavior? Despite negative consequences, ones unjust behavior can cause health and safety issues. Children tend to adapt to the things that surround them a way to help guide children is love and support. According to, Jennifer Warren in the article, â€Å"writes,† on sportsmanship children learning (bad behavior skills) from adults. (However, an open door to violence, alcohol, and drug abuse, will revea l anger characteristicsRead More Effects of Alcohol and Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Essay1688 Words   |  7 Pagesmoderate, but occasionally it is severe. Central nervous system handicaps are also present in children with FAS. A small brain, learning disabilities, short attention span, hyperactivity in childhood, and poor body, hand, and finger coordination are examples of CNS handicaps.(NIAAA, p.1) Mental handicaps and hyperactivity are probably the most debilitating aspects of FAS.(Streissguth, p.1)   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Children with FAS also suffer from facial abnormalities. These abnormalities include: small eye openingsRead MoreEssay on Child Abuse and Neglect1519 Words   |  7 Pages Many children in the US have to endure child abuse. Most people do not understand the consequences the abused children have to live with for the rest of their lives. Because child abuse is a long-term problem, it impacts not only the child and family, but also the society as a whole. Children who are abused usually end up with self-esteem problems and lose their self-confidence. Therefore, they end up getting addicted to drugs or alcohol, which can create problems for their whole community

Friday, May 8, 2020

Conflicting Perspectives Julius Caesar - 1435 Words

Conflicting Perspectives – Julius Caesar Personalities, events or situations often elicit conflicting perspectives. To what extent has textual form shaped your understanding of conflicting perspectives. In your response, make detailed reference to your prescribed text and one other text of your own choosing. Conflicting perspectives are often the outcome of diverse and contrasting views of ones personality, event or situation. This is evident is the play Julius Caesar by William Shakespeare, as Caesars personality develops and the diverse perspective of his death in ensuring civil war create conflict within the play. Raymond Briggs picture book The Tin-Pot Foreign General and the Old Iron Woman generates an understanding of the†¦show more content†¦The emotive language â€Å"brutish†, â€Å"mutiny†, â€Å"rage†, â€Å"corpse†, â€Å"daggers†, â€Å"stabbed†, and â€Å"traitors† helps manipulate the audience into an enraged fury. Through the use of enjambment and caesura he further emphasises these words and persuasively plants mutinous ideas to â€Å"fire the traitors houses†. Dialogue such as â€Å"his eyes are red as fire with weeping† and personal tone â€Å" he was my friend† contrast with Brutuss rational address, allowing Antony to engage his audience emotionally. He diminishes Brutuss perspective through sarcastic repetition of â€Å"yet Brutus is an honourable man† accentuating the lack of evidence provided by Brutus. In contrast, Antony gives specific examples of Caesars humility; â€Å"when the poor have cried Caesar hath wept† causing the audience to identify with Caesar and call into question the logic of Brutuss motives. The audience acknowledges the controversy of Caesars death has caused him to be misrepresented and that the actions of this â€Å"noble Roman† have not reflected those of an ambitious man but of a loyal man working for the good of Rome. Thus, through both Brutuss and Antonys speeches we have been presented with conflicting perspectives, through which Shakespeare has been able to reveal different insights into Caesars personality. In The Tin-Pot Foreign General and the Old Iron Woman, Raymond Briggs makes a bold political statement about the consequences of war byShow MoreRelatedConflicting Perspectives Julius Caesar2413 Words   |  10 PagesConflicting perspectives are the direct result of bias or self-interest as people are always quick to enforce the correctness of their perspective over those of others, by contrasting their perspectives with others, they seek to advantage their own point of view opposed to the viewpoints of others. Conflicting perspectives are caused by bias, or prejudice, and self-interest from a person, event or situation that is encountered. William Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar and Philadelphia (1993), writtenRead MoreJulius Caesar - English Yr 12 - Conflicting Perspectives Essay860 Words   |  4 PagesConflicting perspectives, What are they? Conflicting perspectives are a clash of ideologies and belief systems. When studying conflicting perspectives we are able to generate d iverse and provocative insights, like the idea that is appealing to an audiences logic and reason is less effective in persuading them as opposed to appealing to their emotions which is more effective. This can be seen through the texts Julius Caesar by William Shakespeare, the article Arguments Against Abortion by KerbyRead MoreHsc Essay Mod C Julius Caesar1419 Words   |  6 Pages personalities or situations represented. In various texts such as Shakespeare’s â€Å"Julius Caesar† and Leunig’s cartoon â€Å"Yet another picture with the wrong caption†, the composers bias is evident even though conflicting perspectives towards the personality are presented. Although conflicting perspectives are present in Shakespeare’s â€Å"Julius Caesar†, the composers bias is still evident. Shakespeare’s â€Å"Julius Caesar† is a play which reflected the anxiety of England over succession of leadership. WhenRead MoreJulius Caesar Essay1011 Words   |  5 Pagesï » ¿Conflicting Perspectives Essay: As Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius once suggested â€Å"Everything we hear is an opinion, not a fact. Everything we see is a perspective, not the truth†; embodying the notion that conflicting perspectives are held by different people towards both events and individuals. I believe that this common idea is held true in William Shakespeare’s production ‘Julius Caesar’, discussing the conflict between Brutus, Cassius and Antony, Richard Glover’s Sydney Morning Herald articleRead MoreConflicting Perspectives1001 Words   |  5 Pages‘Conflicting perspectives are the result of individual desires. Manipulation and distortion are used in the attempt to achieve a desired end.’ The notion of â€Å"Conflicting Perspectives† embodies a clash of opposing viewpoints and accepts that different people will always have different perspectives of themselves, others and the world around them. A clash of viewpoints, stemming from individuals seeking to affirm the correctness of their perspective over those put forward by others regardless of theirRead MoreJulio Caesar by William Shakespeare Essay884 Words   |  4 PagesComposers build on our perspectives to instil diverse interpretation of events, situations and personalities represented through various mediums shaped by their purpose. Thus the representation of conflicting perspectives within their works enables responders to experience a deeper understanding of the world. This is clearly demonstrated in Shakespeare’s tragic play Julius Caesar (1599) and Jason Reitman’s satirical film Thankyou for Smoking (2005). While the Elizabethan context informs Shakespeare’sRead MoreEssay on Anton y and Cleopatra1655 Words   |  7 Pagesmanners corrupt (Giddens 13). Note the same sentiment for the relationship between war, leadership, and honor found in this message delivered to Caesar. Thy biddings have been done, and every hour, Most noble Caesar, shalt thou have report How tis abroad. Pompey is strong at sea, And it appears he is beloved of those That only have feared Caesar. To the ports The discontents repair, and mens reports Give him much wronged. (1.4.34-40) This passage speaks of important activity all ofRead More Analysis of Shakespeares Antony and Cleopatra Essay5083 Words   |  21 PagesMacbeth, and it is one of the last great tragedies that Shakespeare produced. The most geographically sweeping of Shakespeare’s plays, Antony and Cleopatra’s setting is the entire Roman Empire, its backdrop the well-documented history of Octavius Caesar, Marc Antony, and Cleopatra. Shakespeare’s primary source for Antony and Cleopatra was the Life of Marcus Antonius contained in Plutarch’s Lives of the Noble Grecians and Romans, which was translated into English by Sir Thomas North in 1579. North’sRead MoreWilliam Shakespeare s The Ghosts 1116 Words   |  5 Pagesconclusive answers; rather, he likes to keep the issues alive by organizing apparitions in an assortment of appearance and from moving points of view. Each of these stages has its own distinct and subtle meanings, but there are three fundamental perspe ctives to which Shakespeare repeatedly returns: the ghost as a figure of false surmise, the ghost as a figure of history’s nightmare, and the ghost as a figure of deep psychic disturbance (Greenblatt 157). Shakespeare was plainly intrigued by what mightRead MoreWilliam Shakespeares Hamlet Essay3604 Words   |  15 Pagesone. Horatio in particular sees the ghost as an ill omen boding violence and turmoil in Denmark’s future, comparing it to the supernatural omens that supposedly presaged the assassination of Julius Caesar in ancient Rome (and which Shakespeare had recently represented in Julius Caesar). Since Horatio proves to be right, and the appearance of the ghost does presage the later tragedies of the play, the ghost functions as a kind of internal foreshadowing, implying tragedy not

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Health Status Impact Of Income Health And Social Care Essay Free Essays

string(29) " extraneous to all features\." The economic inquiries of my documents as a group involve the insouciant consequence of income ( or state ‘s income ) on wellness position of persons. The policy relevancy of these inquiries suggests that, if truly income affects wellness position, so the authorities should use income and wellness policies that are designed to back up individuals with low income which in bend alleviates the effects of low income ; hapless wellness position being a cardinal effect in this paper. The execution of such policies will enable low income individuals gain entree to wellness attention services. We will write a custom essay sample on Health Status Impact Of Income Health And Social Care Essay or any similar topic only for you Order Now Possible policies include income policies such as employment insurance – that offers impermanent fiscal aid to those that are unemployed while they look for work, public assistance aid – that offers fiscal assistance to those in demand of basic necessities every bit good as wellness policy, exactly public wellness insurance such as Medicaid – for low income and destitute people. In this paper, I will be turn toing two major inquiries. The initial inquiry that I will turn to in this research is, â€Å" the consequence of high income and low income on the wellness position of persons severally † . It will help to verify whether individuals with really low income are at higher hazard of sing deteriorating wellness and frailty versa. The following inquiry to be addressed is the way of causality between income and wellness – income to wellness position or wellness position to income degree? This paper is structured as follows: Section two reviews the article â€Å" The Casual Effect of Income on Health: Evidence from Germany Reunification † by Paul Frijters et al. The writers used a big scale natural experiment created by the â€Å" falling of the Berlin Wall † and the attendant reunion of Germany to analyze the insouciant consequence of income alterations on the wellness satisfaction of East and West Germans. The 3rd subdivision looks at the findings from the article, â€Å" Estimating the Effect of Income on Health and Mortality Using Lottery Prizes as an Exogenous Source of Variation in Income † by Mikael Lindahl. This article builds on the huge literature that has established a strong positive relation between income and wellness position and a negative relation with mortality. The 4th subdivision reviews the article, â€Å" Does Money Protect Health Status? Evidence from South African Pensions † by Anne Case. The writer uses pension income as an instrument to analyze the relationship between income and wellness. The 5th subdivision reviews the article by Jerome Adda et Al titled, â€Å" The Impact of Income Shocks on Health: Evidence from Cohort Data. The writer surveies the consequence of income dazes on wellness for a prime-aged population. Section six examines the findings from the article, â€Å" Wealthier is Healthier † by Lant Prichett and Lawrence H. Summers. The writers estimated the effects of income utilizing cross-country, time-series informations on wellness and income per capital. The concluding subdivision of this paper provides a sum-up of the decisions from the articles mentioned above every bit good as unreciprocated inquiries and suggestions for future research. The major countries of treatment will come from the data point, natural experiments and econometric theoretical accounts that these articles use in order to reply inquiries about the impact of income on wellness. Furthermore, the strengths and failings of each article would be presented in each subdivision ; subdivision two to subdivision six. Section 2: Frijters, P. , Haisken-DeNew, J.P. , A ; Shields, M.A. 2005, September. â€Å" The Casual Consequence of Income on Health: Evidence from Germany Reunification. † Journal of Health Economics, Vol. 24, no. 5: 997-1017. This article investigates the causal consequence of income alterations on the wellness satisfaction of East and West Germans in the old ages following reunion. The policy relevancy in this article affirms that understanding the causal pathways between income and wellness is critical for policy design aimed at bettering general wellness or contracting wellness inequalities in society ( Frijters, 2005 ) . The cardinal literature on which this article builds is the literature that has attempted to set up the insouciant consequence of income on wellness utilizing both cross-sectional and longitudinal study informations. The cardinal findings in this literature are that there is a weak nexus between wealth, income and wellness ( Frijters, 2005 ) . The writers used a big scale natural experiment created by the â€Å" falling of the Berlin Wall † and the attendant reunion of Germany in 1990, in order to better set up the causal consequence of income changed on wellness satisfaction ( Frijters, 2005 ) . It was widely acknowledged that the falling of the Berlin Wall was wholly unexpected by the huge bulk of East and West Germans, and resulted to a big income transportations to virtually all of the population of East Germany ( Frijters, 2005 ) . The information beginning used by the writers is the German Socio-Economic Panel ( GSOEP ) between 1984 and 2002 which contains the GSOEP for East Germans and West Germans from 1990 to 2002 and 1984 to 2002 severally. The GSOEP sampled persons, aged 18 and over ; this sample consisted of 46,953 individuals per twelvemonth observations ( 22,641 males ; 24, 492 females ) on 6198 East Germans and 176,770 individuals per twelvemonth observations ( 86,773 males ; 24,492 females ) on 20,617 West Germans ( Frijters, 2005 ) . The methods of analysis used are fixed-effects ordinal calculator – to command for unseen single heterogeneousness that might find both income and wellness satisfaction ; and causal decomposition technique to account for panel abrasion that allows for the designation of alterations as respondents drop out of the sample and new respondents enter the sample ( Frijters, 2005 ) . The equation used in the fixed-effects ordered logit theoretical account is as follows: H*it = Xi, tI? + I?t + fi + I µit Hit = k i H*it I µ [ I?k, I?k+1 ] where H*it is the latent wellness satisfaction ; Hit is the ascertained wellness satisfaction ; Xit is the discernible time-varying features ; I?k denotes the kth cut-off point for the classs ; I?t represents the unseen time-varying general fortunes ; fi is an single fixed features ; and I µit is the error term that is extraneous to all features. You read "Health Status Impact Of Income Health And Social Care Essay" in category "Essay examples" In the econometric model, the endogenous variable, H I µ { 0, †¦ 10 } , represents an ordinal index of wellness satisfaction as evaluated by the person. This step is available for a set of persons indexed by I, where I is a figure from 1 to 10 ; each figure is observed over some immediate subset of old ages indexed T, where T = 1, †¦ ..T ( Frijters, 2005 ) . The drawback of this theoretical account is that it uses a little sum of the entire information available in the sample because the theoretical account reduces all the ordina l wellness satisfaction observations to ( 0, 1 ) . The importance of this theoretical account is that it attempts to explicate in which old ages an person had a comparatively high wellness satisfaction position. A positive consequence of income would so intend that persons ‘ comparatively fitter periods occur when their incomes are comparatively high ( Frijters, 2005 ) . The causal decomposition theoretical account decomposes the alterations in the expected latent wellness satisfaction for males and females individually in the post-reunification period and besides in the pre-unification period for West Germans utilizing the estimations from the fixed-effects theoretical accounts. The entire alterations in latent wellness satisfaction was decomposed into alterations in: existent household income, job-related variables such as pregnancy leave, unemployed and unemployed, household related variables such as matrimonial position, family wellness related variables such as decease of partner, unseen single effects distribution and the unseen mean variables such as clip parametric quantities ( Frijters, 2005 ) . The major consequence from this probe is that increased income leads to better wellness satisfaction, but the quantitative size of this consequence is really little when alterations in current income and a step of lasting income are used ( Frijters, 2005 ) . The policy deduction of these consequences is that addition in household income improved wellness satisfaction. The strength in this article comes from the panel informations that is used ; the GSOEP covers a big sample of persons and it is a longitudinal/panel information since it compares single differences over clip which in bend strengthens the external cogency of this survey. A longitudinal information is utile in foretelling long-run or cumulative effects which are usually difficult to analyse in a cross-sectional survey. In add-on, the sample is taken over a long clip period – 19 twelvemonth period which increases external cogency. Besides, the methods of analysis used are really comprehensive which makes it one of the strengths ; the writer makes usage of the fixed-effects ordinal calculator to command for unseen single heterogeneousness and causal decomposition technique to account for panel. Persons in the survey were besides categorized based on socio-demographic features. Another strength identified is within the external cogency of the survey since the writer examines a alo ne period – Germany reunion. The Germany reunion was an ideal scene to detect the consequence of income on wellness satisfaction since this action was wholly unanticipated by the Germans. Strengths were besides found within the internal cogency of the survey because this survey entails an first-class natural experiment, hence there were no prejudices in the manner people behaved. Failings, on the other manus come from the self-reported wellness positions which might make prejudice since it would be hard to deny or corroborate many claims. Last, the consequences of this survey can non be applied to other states or metropoliss since the survey was done on a alone period in Germany. Section 3: Lindahl, M. 2005. â€Å" Estimating the Effect of Income on Health and Mortality Using Lottery Prizes as an Exogenous Source of Variation in Income. † Journal of Human Resources, Vol. 40, no. 1: 144-68. The economic inquiry that is studied by the writer is the consequence of income on wellness and mortality by utilizing information on pecuniary lottery awards to make exogenic fluctuation in income. The policy relevancy of this article involves separating an association from a insouciant relation which suggests taking in to account the effects of income policies on the wellness of persons. The cardinal literature on which this article builds is the huge literature which has established a strong positive relation between income and wellness position and a negative relation with mortality. This survey comprises of an experimental survey in which the writer uses informations sets from the Swedish Level of Living Surveys ( SLLS ) for 1968, 1974, and 1981. The SLLS follows persons across moving ridges so that many persons are included in all old ages and new persons are frequently added in each moving ridge to keep a representative sample ( Lindahl, 2005 ) . An advantage of utilizing this information set is that they contain extended inquiries on wellness and the matched informations on income and decease day of the months from administrative registries ; it besides contains a inquiry on the sum of money won on lotteries ( Lindahl, 2005 ) . The writer uses OLS and IV theoretical accounts as the method of analysis to gauge the arrested developments of wellness on mean lottery, mean income and other covariates. The writer estimated the arrested developments of wellness in 1981 on the mean lottery award from 1969 to 1981 utilizing the undermentioned equation: Hi81 = I ± + I?Li81,13 + I?’Xit + A†¹i81, where Hi81 represents the assorted steps of hapless wellness in 1981 for single I ; Li81,13 is the mean lottery award in 1969 to 1981 ; Xit is a vector of demographic and household background variables every bit good as socioeconomic variables measured in 196 ; A†¹i81 denotes a random mistake term. The writer controlled for socio-economic variables measured every bit early as 1968 and non subsequently because variables measured subsequently are potentially endogenous with regard to lottery awards before 1969 to 1981 ; the dependant variable is in bad wellness ( Lindahl, 2005 ) . Subsequently, the writer estimated the OLS and IV arrested developments of wellness in 1981 on the logarithm of mean income in 1967 to 1981 utilizing the equations below: ( 1 ) Hi81 = I ± + I? log ( Ii81,15 ) + I?’Xit + I µi81 ( 2 ) log ( Ii81,15 ) = aO + a1 Li81,13 + I„’Xit + vi81, where Ii81,15 is the mean income in 1967 to 1981 ; I µi81 and vi81 are the random mistake footings. Harmonizing to Lindahl, the grounds for bespeaking Hi81 as a map of log income are that wellness variables and log income frequently are about linearly related and that the use of log income facilitates reading. The magnitude of the estimated income consequence is I? . Therefore if I? = – 1, so a 10 per centum addition in income outputs approximately 10 per centum of a standard divergence addition in good wellness, on norm ( Lindahl, 2005 ) . The chief consequences of this survey are that higher income causally generates good wellness ; and income is non protective against bad wellness for older people. The writer besides found out that income causally produces fewer symptoms of hapless mental wellness and decreases the opportunity of a individual being overweight ( Lindahl, 2005 ) . The policy deductions of these consequences is that income redistribution had a positive consequence on wellness position. After a clear reappraisal of this article, it is evident that it exhibits both strengths and failing. The strengths of this article prevarication in the beginning of informations utilised ( SLLS ) since it follows persons across moving ridges so that many persons are included in all old ages and new persons are frequently added in each moving ridge to keep a representative sample. Strengths are found in the information beginning used since it contained extended inquiries on wellness and matched informations on income and decease position from revenue enhancement registries. Another strength identified is the method of analysis used – the manner in which mean disposable household income is calculated, the appraisal of wellness arrested developments on mean lottery award every bit good as the OLS and IV appraisal of wellness arrested developments on the logarithm of mean income. The writer besides controlled for several confusing variables such as the socio-economic variables an d the standardised index of bad wellness in order to forestall prejudice in appraisal. One major failing of this article is found in the internal cogency of the survey in that the informations beginning covers a little clip period – merely three periods ; hence it is difficult brand generalisations. Another failing is that the figure of single in the survey is unknown ; therefore it is hard to besides do generalisations. Similar to other articles, failings besides come from the self-reported wellness positions. Section 4: Case, A. 2001, October. â€Å" Does Money Protect Health Status? Evidence from South African Pensions. † National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, NBER Working Documents: 8495, 1-32. The writer quantifies the impact of a big, exogenic addition in income on wellness position that is associated with the South African province old age pension. The province old pension was originally intended as a safety cyberspace for Whites who reached retirement age without an equal employment-based pension ; pension payments were bit by bit equalized across all racial groups during the decomposition of the Apartheid government in the early 1990s. This province old age pension constitutes an first-class natural experiment in South Africa because those who received this income ne’er expected it when they were younger and when the apartheid was still strong, therefore it represents an exogenic addition in income similar to lottery profitss ( Dr. Dooley ) . A 3rd of families in South Africa have at least one pensionary and the return up of the pension is really high. On norm, adult females aged 60 or above and work forces aged 65 or above by and large receive the full sum of t he pension if they do non hold a private pension. The take-up rate for the province pension is approximately 80 % for inkinesss and coloured. For Whites, who are by and large covered by private pensions, the take-up rate is less than 10 % . The policy relevancy of this article involves pensions that are designed by the authorities for individuals that have retired or are of old age when they are no longer gaining a regular income from employment. The cardinal findings in the literature on which this paper builds is that socioeconomic position has a big impact on wellness results. The information beginning used is the Langeberg study which asks information on persons ‘ wellness, mental wellness, societal connection and economic position. This study was run in 1999 on racially stratified random sample – inkinesss, coloureds and Whites of 300 families ( 1300 persons ) in the Langeberg wellness territory ( Case, 2001 ) . The information used is cross-sectional one since it interviews persons at one point in clip ( 1999 ) to compare differences amongst them. The study was developed over a four twelvemonth period and was the joint merchandise of assorted research workers at the University of Capetown, South Africa that included economic experts, geriatrician, doctors and public wellness experts ( Case, 2001 ) . The study consisted of four faculties ; the first faculty was a family faculty which collected information from the individual in the family identified as â€Å" most knowing about how income is spent by the family † . The following facul ty was for younger grownups, aged 18 to 54, which collected information on work histories, net incomes, wellness position and societal connection. The 3rd faculty was for older grownup, aged 55 or greater which asked extra inquiries on the activities of day-to-day life and about South Africa ‘s alone old age pension. The 4th faculty collected information on vaccinums from kids ‘s wellness cards and information on breastfeeding patterns every bit good as the weights and highs of the kids ( Case, 2001 ) . The writer uses ordered probits of self-reported wellness position as a method of appraisal to analyze the consequence of pension income on wellness position. Ordered probits fundamentally assumes that rankings of wellness positions are meaningful but central differences are non meaningful ( Dr. Dooley ) . For illustration, if an single rates his wellness on a graduated table of 5 and another rates his wellness on a graduated table of 1 ; 5 being first-class wellness and 1 being really hapless wellness ; it does non connote that the person is 5 times as healthier than the 1 who ranks his wellness as really hapless. The chief determination from this survey is that income, in the signifier of an old age pension, improves the wellness position of all family members, in families that pool income ( Case, 2001 ) . The policy deduction of this consequence is that there is a true consequence of pension income on kid wellness. Hence, authoritiess should see hard currency transportations as one means of bettering child wellness. The strength of this paper is evident in the type of study it uses because it interviewed persons individually in order pull out private information to which other family members do non hold entree. Another strength is that the study is designed by dependable governments which make the study reliable. Besides, the study took into history assorted races such as inkinesss, Whites and coloured and controlled for assorted confusing variables such as sex, race, age and figure of pensionaries that could make prejudices in the consequences. Furthermore, for the intent of comparing, the writer presented ordered orbits for inkinesss, Whites and coloured in the U.S, utilizing informations from the National Health Interview Survey ( NHIS ) from 1986-1995. Hence, the findings from this survey can be applicable to U.S.A. In add-on, strengths were found in the clip period for the Langeburg study because it was run 9 old ages from the clip the apartheid ended in 1990. This implies that most of the pensionaries ne’er expected such a good pension. Therefore, this represents a genuinely â€Å" exogenic † addition in old age income like winning a lottery and shows a causal consequence of an addition in income. Similar to the article above, strengths were besides found within the internal cogency of the survey because the survey entails an first-class natural experiment ; hence there were no prejudices in the manner people behaved. However, failings are seen in the study used because it samples a little figure of persons ( 1300 persons ) . Second, the information was self-reported, therefore they might hold been misreport which makes it hard to corroborate or deny many claims. Failings are besides found in the external cogency of this survey since the consequences from this survey may non be representative of other countries of South Africa and other states in Africa or the wider developing universe because South Africa is an exceeding society. Another major failing of this article is the job of gauging the impact of income on kid wellness due to omitted variables such as rearing accomplishments. Besides, the writer did non do usage of a panel information which helps to reply inquiries about the kineticss of alteration. Section 5: Adda, J. , Gaudekcer, H. , A ; Banks, J. 2006, December 18. â€Å" The Impact of Income Dazes on Health: Evidence from Cohort Data. † Institute for Fiscal Studies, IFS Working Documents: W07/05, 32, 1-32. This article surveies the consequence of lasting income inventions ( dazes ) on wellness for a prime-aged population with peculiar focal point on the consequence of income dazes on wellness over the life-cycle. Income shocks signify alterations in the income of cohorts to bring out causal effects of income dazes on wellness. The policy relevancy of this article is the extent to which income policies really lead to betterments in wellness position. The cardinal findings in the literature on which this article builds is that those with greater degrees of economic resources have better wellness. The information beginnings used are three different cross-sectional studies that sampled more than half a million persons over a 25 twelvemonth period ( 1978 to 2003 ) and reported elaborate information on person ‘s wellness ( both subjective and nonsubjective steps ) , wellness behaviors, income, outgo and socio-economic factors ( Adda et al, 2005 ) . The first study is The Family Expenditure Survey ( FES ) which contains elaborate information on family and ingestion. This information covers the period from 1978 to 2003 and the sample size consists of 148,517 persons. The 2nd study is The General Household Survey ( GHS ) which contain inquiries on wellness steps and hazard behaviors ; it covers the period from 1971 to 2003. The 3rd study, The Health Survey for England ( HSE ) unlike the old two, sampled a little figure of people and covers a little clip period from 1991 to 2003 ( Jerome et al, 2005 ) . The writer estimates the consequence of income dazes on wellness over the life-cycle by stipulating an single dynamic theoretical account of both income and wellness which allows for the decomposition of wellness and income dazes into transitory and lasting 1s. The writer allows for a non-linear relationship between income and wellness at single degree. The writer theoretical accounts income and wellness as stochastic procedures that evolve over the lifecycle and uses collection method to place lasting dazes to income by utilizing man-made cohort informations followed for up to 25 old ages ( Adda et al, 2005 ) . An advantage of utilizing the man-made cohort informations is that it helps to work a wealth of informations with elaborate information on both income and many wellness results because it allows the combination of assorted datasets ( Adda et al, 2005 ) . In order to pattern the stochastic procedure for single income, the writer uses the undermentioned equation: Yit = Yi, t-1 + ( 1 – Liter ) uit + vit, where Yit represents income, L denotes the lag-operator and mistake footings are denoted by uit and vit. Likewise, to pattern the stochastic procedure of single wellness, the writer treats wellness as a uni-dimensional stock variable and augments it with an individual-specific attack for coherence grounds. The methods of appraisal used by the writers consisted of several stairss ; the first measure was to regress the wellness and income variables on a suited set of regressors capturing cohort and age effects, the 2nd measure was to utilize the first-differences remainders and the last was to utilize the GMM technique ( Adda et al, 2005 ) . The chief consequence from this survey is that, income dazes has small effects on wellness position, but do affect wellness behaviors ( such as eating wonts ) and mortality ( Adda et al, 2005 ) . The policy deduction of these consequences provides grounds that lasting income dazes lead to poorer wellness behavior and no grounds that it straight affects wellness steps ( such as blood force per unit area ) . Clearly, the strength of this article is found in the information beginning used since it covers the life-cycle – a 25 twelvemonth period from 1978 to 2003 and studies comprehensive information about the persons in survey. Second, strengths are found in the internal cogency of this survey such that the study samples a big figure of persons – more than half a million persons. Third, the studies used are gotten from two states U.S and England which helps for comparing, pertinence and generalisation. Conversely, failing of this article comes from the methods of appraisal because it is really ill-defined and hard to understand. For illustration, the writer does non supply the significance for the GMM technique. Failings are besides seen from the self-reported wellness position which might make prejudice in the consequences because persons might supply incorrect information. Besides, this survey is an experimental survey which involves a strictly descriptive informations ; therefore it does non do any anticipations sing causality. Weaknesses besides root from the absence of a panel information that compares differences amongst persons ‘ overtime and are peculiarly utile in replying inquiries about the kineticss of alteration. The usage of a panel information will beef up the external cogency of this survey. Section 6: Pritchett, L. , A ; Summers, L.H. , 1996. â€Å" Wealthier is Healthier. † Journal of Human Resources, Vol. 31 no. 4: 841-68. The writers of this article examine the consequence of income on wellness utilizing cross-country, clip series informations on wellness ( infant and child mortality and life anticipation ) and per capita income. The policy relevancy of this article involves increasing a state ‘s per capital income to see its consequence on kid wellness. The cardinal literature on which this article builds is the 1 that has estimated an income-health relationship utilizing cross-national informations. The cardinal findings in the literature on which this article builds is similar to the consequences gotten in this survey but the research workers who conducted these surveies were unable to turn to issues of causality ( Pritchett et al, 1996 ) . The information beginning used is the 1 at five-year intervals over the period from 1960 up to 1985, for a upper limit of five observations per state ( Pritchett et al, 1996 ) . The writer uses the OLS and IV theoretical accounts as the method of appraisal ; the OLS consequences on infant mortality was foremost reported and so the hardiness of the OLS estimates with regard to fluctuations of timing of observation, informations quality and income definition were verified. The IV estimations for infant mortality for a individual specification and sample was besides reported. Similarly, OLS and IV estimations for entire kid ( under 5 ) mortality and life anticipation were accounted for ( Prichett et al, 1996 ) . The writer estimated the five twelvemonth log differences for states with GDP per capita below $ 6000 utilizing observations for the old ages 1960 to 1985. The writer utilised instrumental variables as an appraisal scheme to place the causal consequence of income on wellness. In strumental variables in this context are variables that are non influenced by an unseen variable suspected to be doing both income growing and wellness betterment ( Prichett et al, 1996 ) . The chief decision of this survey is that additions in state ‘s income raises wellness position ( Prichett et al, 1996 ) . The policy deduction of this consequence is that much of the betterment in kid wellness is due to the acceptance of low-priced intercessions that exists for cut downing infant mortality non attributable to income alterations. Hence, these low-priced intercessions should be implemented along with income policies for overall betterment in child wellness. The strengths of this article prevarication in the information beginning since it covers a long clip period from 1960 to 1985 utilizing a five-year interval. Strength comes from the writer ‘s usage of instrumental variables and other health-status indexs such as mortality and life anticipation. Instrumental variables are determiners of income growing but exogenic with regard to wellness. The importance of utilizing mortality as an index of wellness position is that, it is available for a big figure of old ages and states ( Pritchett et al, 1996 ) . Furthermore, it avoids the potentially more terrible contrary causing jobs associated with the relationship between grownup wellness and income growing ( Pritchett et al, 1996 ) . Another strength found was that confusing variables such as instruction and income were controlled for so as to forestall prejudice in appraisal. The failing of this article is that it does non supply information about socio-demographic features of persons and does non stipulate the figure of persons in the survey. In add-on, some of the information beginnings discussed in this article did non come from dependable beginnings. Section 7: Drumhead, Unanswered Questions, and Suggestions for Future Research Having evaluated the findings and decision in these articles, we see that the overall decisions in these articles are that income has a important impact on wellness position. Given that the five articles utilised different appraisal methods every bit good as dissimilar explanatory variables, it is hard to notice on the overall effectivity of the policies involved in these articles. Measuring the articles separately, Case Anne used pension income as an instrument to analyze the relationship between income and wellness position. He found out that pension income improved the wellness position of all persons in the family that pool income. This provided the grounds that there is a true consequence of pension income on kid wellness. Therefore, we can come into a decision that pension policy was effectual in this instance. In deciding the issue with respects to the unreciprocated inquiries, it is indispensable to measure the strengths and failings of the articles. For illustration, the usage of instrumental variables and the control of confusing variables strengthened the internal cogency of the surveies. The skip of of import variables weakened the internal cogency of the survey. For case, in the article, â€Å" Does Money Protect against Health Status † Evidence from South African Pensions, there were omitted variables such as rearing accomplishments which might hold been correlated with wellness and income. Therefore, an unreciprocated inquiry will be, â€Å" what are other possible omitted variables? † A following inquiry will be in respects to external cogency, for illustration can the consequences in these surveies be applicable to Canada every bit good as other states? A subsequent inquiry will be, â€Å" What other policies could be implemented in order to relieve the impact of i ncome on wellness position? To reason, since it is clear from the analysis in each article that the being of a causal nexus between income and wellness is still unsure, an docket for future research will be to use random fluctuations in income and do usage of panel informations theoretical accounts. Another country of future research will be to include omitted variables in future surveies so as to beef up the internal cogency of the survey. A subsequent country of research will be to avoid self-reported data point in the survey so as to avoid misreport from respondents. Surveies should besides affect more of natural experiments since people in these types of surveies are non cognizant that they are being studied. This would beef up the internal cogency of the survey every bit good as prevent prejudice in consequences. In add-on, future researches should do usage of appraisal methods that are easy to understand every bit good as utilize panel data point which helps to reply inquiries about the kineticss of alter ation and utile in foretelling long-run or cumulative effects which are usually hard to analyse in a cross-sectional survey. How to cite Health Status Impact Of Income Health And Social Care Essay, Essay examples

Tuesday, April 28, 2020

Research Paper on Childbirth Essay Example

Research Paper on Childbirth Essay Childbirth and Research Paper Ertelt, Steven. Mayo Clinic Doctor Admits Abortions Hurt Women, Cause Premature Births. Lifetqews. com. N. p. 20 Aug. 2009. web. 8 oct. 2012. The article was about how a mayo doctor by the name of Roger W. Harms wrote a factsheet on how abortions lead to premature births in pregnacies to follow abortions. Due to the vacuum, spoon, or other instruments used during the surgical procedure of removing the fetus, the cervix and uterus are often damaged. Due to a damaged cervix, premature births are more likely. Studies also show that premature babies have twice the chance of developing cerebral palsy than a baby born at full- term. This article is biased against abortions. The point of this article was to show the consequences women face when they have an abortion in later pregnancies. In my opinion, this article is reliable since the studies were conducted by a physician from Mayo Clinic, not Just an average Joe guy trying to get his two cents in. I would definitely use this article in my research paper. I will use it when I discuss the aftermath of an abortion. Once women perform the abortion, they think that the problem is gone. However, that is not the case. Other articles I have read discuss the depression and psychological affects of an abortion and the toll that has on the women. This article describes physical problems women can face after they have had an abortion. Ertelt, Steven. Mayo Clinic Doctor Admits Abortions Hurt Women, Cause Premature Births. LifeNews. com. N. p. 20 Aug. 2009. Web. 8 Oct. 2012. an abortion. Ert It, Steven. Mayo Clinic Doctor Admits Abortions Hurt Women, Cause an abortion. We will write a custom essay sample on Research Paper on Childbirth specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Research Paper on Childbirth specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Research Paper on Childbirth specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer

Thursday, March 19, 2020

An American hero essays

An American hero essays In the novel by Stephen Crane, Crane expressed his feelings of war by using impressionism through a complex character named Henry during the Civil War. Crane used many different ways of expressing his thoughts on war. He used Henry as a teenager who looked past at the battlefield, and only saw himself as being a hero. Henry later would find out the cruelty of war as Crane emphasized. To be a hero I believe you have to be brave and noble, for your team or in this case army and not for yourself. In this case Henry was anything but brave and noble in the first half of the story. Henry was a coward who ran and left his team to die. Henry was imature in that he was always worried about what other people thought of him, instead of what he thought of himself. Throughout the essay Henry was always worried about what other peoples opinions were of him. A true hero wouldnt worry about what others thought of him. An example of this was when Henry was walking with the wounded soldiers and Henry ran off because he had no wounds to show from the fight when the injured soldier asked him what his injury was. Henry also deminstrated being imature and afraid when he saw other soldiers run from battle during the first fight; Henry runs with the other soldiers because he is afraid. Being afraid is not a characteristic of being a hero. Henry shows off his fear when he lies about running from the battle and tells other soldiers that he was sperated during the combat, and fought with another regiment that Henry say badly needed his help. Henry was always at battle with fear. Although Henry did win his battle against fear at the end of the book, he did nothing that would make him a hero. Henry was too much at battle with himself and fought because of his fear. Again back to what I believe a hero is, to be brave is the opposite of being afraid. I do feel though at the end of the story Henry unde...

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

Audre Lorde, Black Lesbian Feminist Poet

Audre Lorde, Black Lesbian Feminist Poet Audre Lorde Facts Known for:  poetry, activism. While some of her poetry is known for being romantic or erotic, she’s better known for her more political and angry poetry, especially around racial and sexual oppression. She identified through most of her career as a black lesbian feminist. Occupation:  writer, poet, educatorDates:  February 18, 1934 – November 17, 1992Also known as: Audre Geraldine Lorde, Gamba Adisa (adopted name, meaning Warrior – She Who Makes Her Meaning Known) Background, Family: Mother: Linda Gertrude Belmar LordeFather: Frederic Byron Husband: Edwin Ashley Rollins (married March 31, 1962, divorced 1970; attorney) Children: Elizabeth, Jonathan Partner: Frances Clayton ( - 1989)Partner: Gloria Joseph (1989 – 1992) Education: Catholic schools, Hunter High School (New York City)Hunter College, B.A., 1960.   Library Science.National University of Mexico, 1954.Columbia University, M.L.S., 1962. Library Science. Religion: Quaker Organizations: Harlem Writers Guild, American Association of University Professors, Sisterhood in Support of Sisters in South Africa Audre Lorde Biography: Audre Lorde’s parents were from the West Indies: her father from Barbados and her mother from Grenada.   Lorde grew up in New York City, and began writing poetry in her teen years. The first publication to publish one of her poems was Seventeen magazine. She traveled and worked for several years after graduating from high school, then came back to New York and studied at Hunter College and Columbia University. She worked in Mount Vernon, New York, after graduating from Columbia University, moving on to become a librarian in New York City.   Then she began an educational career, first as a lecturer (City College, New York City; Herbert H. Lehman College, Bronx), then associate professor (John Jay College of Criminal Justice), then finally professor at Hunter College, 1987 – 1992.   She served as visiting professor and lecturer around the United States and the world. She was aware early of her bisexuality, but by her own description confused about her sexual identity, given the times. Lorde married an attorney, Edwin Rollins, and had two children before they divorced in 1970. Her later partners were women. She published her first book of poems in 1968. Her second one, published in 1970, includes explicit references to love and an erotic relationship between two women.   Her later work became more political, dealing with racism, sexism, homophobia and poverty. She also wrote about violence in other countries, including Central America and South Africa. One of her more popular collections was Coal, published in 1976. She characterized her poems as expressing her â€Å"duty to speak the truth as I see it† including â€Å"not just the things that felt good, but the pain, the intense, often unmitigating pain.†Ã‚   She celebrated differences among people. When Lorde was diagnosed with breast cancer, she wrote about her feelings and experience in journals which were published as The Cancer Journals in 1980. Two years later she published a novel, Zami: A New Spelling of My Name, which she described as â€Å"biomythography† and which reflects her own life. She founded Kitchen Table: Women of Color Press in 1980s with Barbara Smith. She also founded an organization to support black women in South Africa during the time of apartheid. In 1984, Lorde was diagnosed with liver cancer. She chose to ignore the advice of American physicians, and instead sought experimental treatment in Europe. She also moved to St. Croix in the U.S. Virgin Islands, but continued to travel to New York and elsewhere to lecture, publish and engage in activism. After Hurricane Hugo left St. Croix with devastating damage, she used her fame in mainland cities to raise funds for relief. Audre Lorde won many awards for her writing, and was named New York State Poet Laureate in 1992. Audre Lorde died of liver cancer in 1992 in St. Croix. Books by Audre Lorde The First Cities.  Introduction by Diane di Prima. Poets Press. 1968.Cables to Rage.  Broadside Press. 1970.From a Land Where Other People Live.  Broadside Press. 1973.The New York Head Shop and Museum.  Broadside Press. 1974.Coal.  Norton. 1976.Between Our Selves.  Eidolon. 1976.The Black Unicorn.  Norton. 1978.The Cancer Journals. Spinsters Ink. 1980.Zami: A New Spelling of My Name. Crossing Press. 1982.Chosen Poems Old and New.  Norton. 1982.Sister Outsider. Crossing Press. 1984.Our Dead behind Us.  Norton. 1986.A Burst of Light.  Firebrand Books. 1988.Need: A Chorale for Black Women Voices.  Women of Color Press. 1990.Undersong: Chosen Poems Old and New.  Norton. 1992.The Marvelous Arithmetics of Distance.  Norton. 1993.The Collected Poems of  Audre Lorde.  Norton. 1997.

Sunday, February 16, 2020

Outer Space and Inner Space Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Outer Space and Inner Space - Essay Example This paper seeks to discuss why Theremin became popular during this period, how it works, its effect on the audience, and the various ways in which it is used in both outer space and inner space movies. Theremin is named after it inventor- a Russian inventor known as Leon Theremin. This is an early electronic music instrument that functioned without the control of the performer. The instrument was patented in 1928 with the sole intention of using it for melodic music in the traditional vein. Several years after its invention, Theremin was widely used in the making of several films. However, its application in film was limited to some types of films such as suspense and science fiction films where the technique of sound manipulation was effective. The1950 time period was the perfect period for this electronic music instrument as it was highly popularized in Hollywood. According to Weird Vibration (2002), during that period, â€Å"Hollywood was hard-pressed both by the court-ordered selling of studio-owned theaters and by competition from the new medium of television from the new medium of television; the financial pressures reminded producers that it was cheaper to build one monste r than a series of planet landscapes and props†. Following the popularity of these types of films in the 1950s, â€Å"Hollywood composers looked to technology for the alien Other’s stereotypical voice† (Weird Vibrations, 2002). As such, music composers and film makers popularized the use of Theremin due to its strong semiotic properties. Science fiction and suspense films that used this electronic instrument stood out as opposed to those that were non-Theremin-flavored. According to Weird Vibration (2002), †Also there is an important difference exists between the Theremin-flavored musical ideas with which composers for the science fiction films limned their extrater-restrial others and Hollywood’s standard musical depiction of outsiders. The difference